Hypertension in children and adolescents: Epidemiology and clinical significance

Th. Nika, S. Stabouli, KD. Kollios, V. Kotsis, F. Papachristou



Hypertension in children is a condition with increasing interest due to its increasing prevalence – reported up to 4,5% – and its potential adverse consequences, such as target organ damage already occurring during childhood, and the appearance of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Of great importance is the measurement of blood pressure in all children > 3 years of age, in order to indentify elevated blood pressure values. Thus, the treatment of hypertension and the prevention of cardiovascular disease would be effective. For the evaluation of blood pressure levels in children, blood pressure tables are available providing blood pressure standards according to gender, age and height. The diagnosis of hypertension is based on the presence of deviations from normal blood pressure values according to gender, age and height of the child. This article discusses the epidemiological studies concerning blood pressure measurement in pediatric population, which are necessary for the development of blood pressure tables.

Keywords: hypertension, blood pressure, blood pressure tables, epidemiological studies